In Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the European Court of Human Rights provided in Seensen and Rasmussen/Denmark (2006) for “a negative right of association or, in other words, a right of non-membership of an association.” As a result, closed transactions are illegal under section 11 of the agreement. Article 17 of the Trade Union Act stipulates that the collective agreement is extended to all workers of the same type when 75 per cent of this category of employer workers are already covered by the agreement. Although this appears to impose on union stores, the definition of “similar worker type” has proved too difficult in practice and Section 17 is rarely applied.  For the entertainment industry, the unions representing performers have the most important rule that prohibits all actors represented from working on a non-union production. Sanctions are imposed on the trade unionist and not on the employer and may result in a loss of union membership. Most of the major productions are union productions, and non-members join the Screen Actors Guild by acting as extras and winning three union vouchers or receiving a line of speech and entering in this way. Other performance unions do not have minimum membership standards, but those who join them cannot work under the union umbrella. The status of trade union activity may also be questioned by its members. This is what happens when a majority of union employees vote in favour of terminating the union-shop in their contract – thus eliminating the most coveted form of union security. In the absence of a union shop or a closed store, the workstations are either assigned to workstations (which require employees to contribute union dues but do not join the union), or open shops (which do not require membership or fees). Workers in open businesses who benefit from the benefits that unions gain through collective bargaining without sharing costs are sometimes referred to as “parasites”. Trade union activity, regulation requiring workers to join a particular union and pay dues within a specified period after the start of employment – usually 30 to 90 days. Such regulation ensures that workers pay the benefits of union representation.
A union shop is less restrictive than a closed store that prevents employers from hiring outside the union. Article 7, Section 1 of Japan`s Trade Union Act 1949 expressly authorizes the negotiation of trade union-shop provisions, provided that the union represents the majority of workers on the site. However, Article 28 of the Japanese Constitution protects freedom of association. The Japanese courts have fought against the two opposing legal values and have found that the right to organization is greater than the right to freedom of association.  However, the Tribunal developed five conditions for the acceptance of trade union activity: The famous English dispute Rookes v Barnard concerned a store agreement.  The closed store is legal in all Canadian jurisdictions from 2006 and unions can (if they wish) negotiate forms of union security agreements that offer less than union stores.  The term “union store” is not used in the United Kingdom, but it appears to be a closed store after entry.