Agreement Governing The Activities Of States On The Moon And Other Celestial Bodies (1979)

The second stage of international law is the treaty. Treaties can bind a nation in different ways, with ratification being the best known. The act of ratification means that a national convention is legally bound by the provisions of a particular treaty. In the United States, ratification of an international treaty requires Senate approval. After its ratification, it has the same force of law as a federal statute proclaimed by Congress, and its legal effect can only be denied by the exit of a treaty, Congress proclaims a statute to counter a treaty or the court`s decision that a treaty is unconstitutional. 2. As part of conducting scientific studies and promoting the provisions of this agreement, contracting states have the right to collect samples of their minerals and other substances from the Moon and remove them from the Moon. These samples remain available to the contracting states that led them to make them and can be used for scientific purposes. States Parties ensure that it is desirable to make some of these samples available to other interested States Parties and the international scientific community for scientific review. States Parties may also, in scientific studies, use mineral substances and other substances from the Moon in quantities to support their missions.

Article 4 of the 1979 lunar agreement concerns “the benefits and interests of all countries, the principle of cooperation and mutual assistance, and international cooperation.” In particular, Article 5 states that: “1. States Parties inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the public and the international scientific community, where possible and where possible, of their activities relating to the research and use of the Moon. Information on time, purposes, locations, orbital parameters and duration should be provided for each mission to the Moon as soon as possible after launch, while information on the results of each mission, including scientific results, must be provided after the end of the mission. Recognising that the Moon, as The Earth`s natural satellite, plays an important role in space exploration, 5. States Parties to this Convention commit to establishing an international system, including appropriate procedures, to regulate the use of the Moon`s natural resources, as such exploitation will soon become possible. This provision is implemented in accordance with Article 18 of this agreement. With the exception of Articles 17 to 21, the references in this agreement are understood to be applicable to any international intergovernmental organization conducting space activities when the Organization declares that it accepts the rights and obligations under this Agreement and if the majority of The States Parties to the Organization are parties to this Convention and the Treaty on the Principles of State Action in the Exploration and Use of Space. , including the Moon and other celestial bodies.